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NATURE
CORDOBA

ARGENTINA

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INTRODUCTION to ARGENTINA

Argentina Travel
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BUENOS AIRES
IGUAZU
Iguazu Falls
Iguazu River
Circuits
Iguazu National Park
Foz De Iguazu
National Park

CORDOBA
Road of Big Lakes
Road of the History
The Road of The
Punilla

Road of Mar Chiquita
Road To Traslasierra
MENDOZA
Zone of the Centre
Eastern Zone
Southern Zone
Mountain High
Circuit

Ranches
Gran Mendoza
The Wine Trail
SALTA
Northeast Circuit
West Andean
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Southeast Circuit
Valleys Circuit
SAN LUIS
Circuit of the
Centre

Ranches
Northeastern
Circuit

Western Circuit
Northern Circuit
JUJUY
Puna Circuit
Quebrada Circuit
Valleys Circuit
Yunga Circuit

PATAGONIA
TRAVEL & TOURS


BARILOCHE
Lake Perito Moreno
Villa La Angostura
Esquel
USHUAIA
Tierra del Fuego
National Park

Beagle Channel
PUERTO MADRYN
Rawson
Gaiman

SAN MARTIN DE LOS
ANDES and the CROSS
of the LAKES

Junin de los Andes
Cerro Chapelco
Lanin National Park
CALAFATE
Perito Moreno
Glacier

El Chalten
Los Glaciares
National Park



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NATURE IN CORDOBA

Fauna Flora

FAUNA IN CORDOBA

PAMPAS STEPPE
The fauna inhabiting it is adapted to a treeless life. The big mammals that once lived in here such as the jaguar and the deer have totally disappeared; and two native species of the humid pampas such as the vizcacha and the rhea are on the brink of extinction due to the intervention of man.

The most important species are:

Mammals: red weasel, pampas grey fox, vizcacha, country mice, and guinea pigs. Introduced species: European wild boar and European hare.

Birds: rhea, small tinamou, kingfisher, carancho or caracara, common rhea, white falcon, gull, golden pigeon or torcaza, pirincha, vizcacha eater little owl, big owl of the fields, country woodpecker, hornero, earwig, streaked flycatcher, calandra lark, black thrush, goldfinch and chingolo.

SPANISH VERSION
NATURALEZA EN ARGENTINA
Nature in Argentina
Antarctica
Buenos Aires
Cordoba
Corrientes
Chubut
Formosa
Iguazu
Jujuy
La Rioja
Mendoza
Misiones
Salta
San Luis
Tierra del Fuego
Reptiles: common lizard, nesting iguana, caimans and yarará or fer de lance.

Amphibious: common toad and little frog.

CHACO FOREST
Mammals: picaza weasel, mice-eared bat, armadillo or mataco, corzuela or mountain goat, collared peccary, Patagonian hare or mara, puma, pampas cat, jaguar, pampas grey fox (eastern forest) western grey fox (western forest), zorrilla, vizcacha and tuco-tuco or wild rabbit.

Birds: small pampas tinamou (eastern forest) small western tinamou, mountain tinamou, chimango or common rhea, carancho or caracara, little falcon, pigeons (spotted and golden) catita, crespin, urutaú, common little owl and big owl, royal woodpecker, chinchero, leñatero, monjita, pitch black thrush, red-hooded cardinal, woodpecker, talker parrot.

Reptiles: rattlesnake, small yarará or fer de lance, in the eastern zone: cross and coral vipers, vizcacha eater boa or ampalagua, rainbow boa, clelia (serpent) nesting iguana, red iguana, lizard, gekko (Homonota fasciata), and land turtle.

Amphibious: rococo toad, Chaco frog, small frog and tree frog.

Mar Chiquita Basin
We find extensive grasslands alternated with areas of vegetation adapted to the saline environment of the riverbanks and the immense lagoon, and other smaller semi permanent ones on the Valley of the Dulce River.

Mammals: the last jaguars were extinguished in here; today we can find pampas cats, foxes, zorrillas, rabbits of the sticks, Patagonian hares or maras, martin, the otter or coipo. Mulitas and capybaras, currently endangered, live in the northern zone of the lagoon.

Birds: there are 250 species, amongst them the Andean flamingo, southern royal lapwing, plover, spoonbill, coscoroba, heron, swan, brown-hooded gull, stork, a variety of ducks, goose, macá, etc.

Reptiles: abundance of serpents (viper of the cross) and snakes.

Amphibious: rococo toad, and Chaco frog.

Salinas Grandes Basin
The area has the aspect of a steppe of salty grounds, arid and desolated. Species that are almost extinguished elsewhere in the country still dwell in here.

Mammals: here we find the last herds of guanacos, the Patagonian hare or mara, and the rabbit of the sticks or the saline, corzuela or mountain goat, peccary and saline cat. Other species are: grey fox, deer, minor tayra, zorrilla, tuco-tuco, etc.

Birds: mountain parrot, little nun of the saline and rhea.

Reptiles: ampalagua, rattlesnake, yarará or fer de lance, gekko and land turtle.

Amphibious: toad.

Wetlands and lagoons
There are species linked to humidity and aquatic environments living in the rivers and streams and on the riverbanks. A great animal activity can be noticed in these low and humid sectors, given that most animals come down from the upper areas in search of preys and water. We can find traces of mammals such as the grey fox and the pampas cat on the banks. We can also find herons and birds from the forests such as the chiguanco thrush amongst others.

Mammals: puma, pampas cat and coipo or river otter.

Birds: purple heron, white heron, witch, stork, flamingo, black-necked swan, white swan, ducks (black headed, picaza weasel, Argentine, sirirí and maize eater), American coot, southern lapwing, southern royal lapwing and plover.

Reptiles: river turtle, serpents and snakes.

Amphibious: common toad, pampas frog, toad and little frog.

SIERRA REGION
The fauna in the sierra zone of Cordoba is conformed by species also present in the rest of the region, and like is the case of the fauna, it varies according to the altitude and the environmental conditions.

We can differentiate two environments:

Sierra forest (Sierras of low and mid altitude)

Mammals: picaza weasel, midget weasel, mice-tailed bat, vampire, pampas fox (eastern slope) western grey fox (western slope), tayra, zorrilla, pampas cat, puma and purple guinea pig.

Birds: sierra tinamou, black-headed vulture or jote, mountain pigeon, green catitia of the sierras (small parrots), grey-headed sierra catitia (western slope) crespín, caburés (a rapacious insectivore mochuelo), big green kingfisher, rundún and long-tailed hummingbirds, crested hornero, cachalot, small common climber, common caracara, pitch black plover, seven colours, seed eater, purple queen, king of the forest, black-headed, finch, chingolo, white belly black swallow, black swallow and biguá.

Reptiles: nesting iguana (eastern side) red iguana (western side), lizards, gekkos, striped snakes, coral snakes, big yarará or fer de lance, small yarará, flat-nosed yarará and rattlesnakes.

Amphibious: small frog of the blackberry, frog, common toad and toad.

Fauna of the slopes

Mammals: puma, vizcacha of the sierra and zorrillas.

Birds: sierra tinamou, chingolo, thrush, blackbird, tailed hummingbird, common white-throated earth creeper, common vencejo, shielded eagle, hawk, puna hawk and falcons.

Reptiles: rattlesnake, flat-nosed yarará and caiman.

Amphibious: small frog of the blackberry and small coloured toad.

Fauna of the shrubs and high grasslands (Altas Cumbres)

Mammals: puma and red fox.

Birds: condor, black-headed vulture or jote, redheaded vulture, loica or red-breasted, country woodpecker, blackbird, plover, remolinera, southern lapwing, shielded eagle and peregrine falcon.

Reptiles: serpents, green or Achala caiman.

You can wonder with the sublime and majestic flight of the condor, frequent dweller of the Sierras Chicas.

FLORA IN CORDOBA

As a consequence of its geographical location Cordoba is an area of contact for different flowers (Chaco, Andean, Patagonian Magallanic), which means that they coexist with species of different origins.

CHACO FOREST
This zone is divided in two areas separated by the Sierras of the North, which present characteristic vegetation and environments.

a. - Eastern Chaco Forest: it is situated between the Sierras of the North, Villa del Totoral and the Cacti of the West on the basin of the Dulce River.

Tree and shrubby stratum: constituted by the following species that form a canopy rather scarce of 8 to 10 metres high: red acacia, white acacia, black locust tree, white locust tree, mistol tala tree, tusca, espinillo, moradillos, chañar, garabato tintitaco, brea, atamisqui, trumpet tree, piquillín, sombra de toro, abriboca, yellow sage, poleo, small black peach tree, lagaña de perro, white garabato, female garabato, carqueja, quiebra arado and others.

Cactuses: cardón, ucle, quimilo and ulúa,

Climbers: pañuelito, trompeta de venus, sacha guasca, cabellos de indio o loconte, and pasionaria.

Others: air carnation, liga or mistletoe, chaguares and grasses.

b. - Western Chaco Forest: it is drier than the previous, with precipitations ranging between 380 and 480 mm. It extends west of the sierra systems and constitutes the most arid portion of the Province.

Tree stratum: the vegetation is shorter, rarely growing above 7 metres. Here you can find the white locust tree (another species with larger leafs than that described previously), white fern leaf acacia (with hanging branches), retamo, jabonillo, cross sage, alpataco, barba de tigre chico, jarilla, big pichana, lata, brea and the aromito.

The other stratums are less abundant than in the eastern zone, although the species are the same in both zones. The herbaceous stratum and the grasses do not form a tight mantle.

THE SIERRAS
Variations in altitude are important in here: the lower hillocks are less than 500 metres high and the highest peaks reach almost 3000 metres; therefore vegetation "floors" or "belts" are created, characterised by certain groups of species.

Floor 1 - Sierra Forest: between 500 and 1350 metres above sea level, it is characterised for being generally open, dense in favourable places and scarce in the most severe environments.

Tree and shrubby species: the Chaco Sierra Forest has the peppertree or "peppertree for drinking" (Lithraea ternifolia), the "coco" (Fagara coco) and the horco - acacia (Schinopsis haenkeana) as the dominant tree species. They are accompanied by the country apple tree, espinillos, peach tree of the sierras, white peppertree, piquillín of the sierras, and some species from the plains that climb along the slopes occupying just the lower fringe of this stratum on drier and warmer slopes: locust trees, orco - acacia or sierra acacia from Cordoba, earomito, chañar, tala, mistol, sobra de toro, ucle, chilca, barba de tigre, yellow sage, lagaña de perro, trumpet tree, chaguares, lantana and abutilón.

Others: sacha guasca, pasionaria, tasi, berbena, zinia and grasses.

* Palm tree clusters: there is an entirely different landscape to that in the rest of the Province in the northern sector of the Pampas de Pocho, on small valleys, hillocks and lower slopes of the surroundings, as well as north of Tulumba, North San Pedro, San Francisco del Chañar and Pozo del Tigre. It is conformed by the palm trees of the Trithinax campestris species, which occupy extensive sierra areas between 700 and 1100 metres above sea level. They can be found in small concentrations or isolated in Capilla del Monte, Charbonier, Copacabana, Cerro Colorado and Sebastian el Cano.

Floor 2 - Sierra Brushwood, Brushwood of Heights or Romerillal: it extends between 1300 and 1700 metres above sea level.

Shrubby stratum: dominant species: romerillo (Heterothalamus alienus), romerito, carqueja and barba de tigre.

Tree species: tabaquillo and orco peppertree on the lowest levels of this floor and in some places of the Sierras Grandes.

Other species: ephedra.

Floor 3 - Grasslands and Dwarf Woods of Heights: they grow over 1700 metres above sea level. The dwarf woods extend over slopes, summits and elevated plains, descending from the highest elevations until blending with the floor of the romerillal, up to 1000 metres above sea level. This can be observed in the zone of El Cuadrado in Sierras Chicas, in Olaen, in Altos Pampa or in the Cordones del Pajarillo, Northern Copacabana, Pocho and Guasapama.

The estipa and the festuca, which form the typical sierra grasslands, are the characteristic grasses. At higher altitudes we find a variety of grasses and extensive turfs forming true pastures.

There are large pampas in the Sierras Grandes such as those at San Luis, at Achala and at Olaen. The creeks and ravines that cross the highlands of the Sierras Grandes present trees, bushes, ferns and mosses, with the tabaquillo and its twisted silhouette and bark that peels in layers of reddish copper colour, standing out.

THE PLAIN

In ancient times two thirds of the plains in Cordoba were covered with tree vegetation that constituted the plain forests.

PAMPAS STEPPE
They occupy the central eastern plains of Argentina and comprise a surface of roughly 400000 square kilometres. They embrace the south and central eastern part of the Province of Cordoba, and extensive and monotonous plains crossed by the watercourses of the Calemuchita, Cocancharagua and Carcaraña Rivers represent them.

The Pampas Steppe is characteristic for the total lack of trees and the uniform vegetation constituted by grasses, sometimes interrupted by dunes or lagoons.

Soft grasses that are sometimes used by local cattle breeders as forage constitute the herbaceous vegetation of Cordoba's eastern plain.

Salinas Grandes Basin
It is on the northeastern limit of the Province and only species adapted to the saltpetre existing in the soil can grow in here. Some tree species grow on the limits such as: chañar, brea, crespa, white fern leaf acacia, alpataco and tinticaco; and brushwood with species such as lata, carne gorda, avocado, jume, blue sage, jumecillo, cachiyuyos, mastuerzo, vinagrillo, usillo, rodajillo, broom, jabonillo, cardón, jarilla, penca and quimilo.

Mar Chiquita Basin
It occupies the northeastern angle of the Province, and it has marshy and sandy grounds that do not sustain dense vegetation, especially north and west of the lagoon, where psamófila vegetation is predominant. The typical species are the jumes, salty verdolaga, jumecillo, white jume, vinagrillo, cachiyuyo, mastuerzo, carne gorda and yerba del ciervo. In the zone of influence of the Dulce River: esparto, salty grass, cinodon; in the upper zones trees specimens such as: locust trees, lecherones, vinales, espinillos, chañares, white fern leaf acacia and mistol.

Rivers and lagoons
The misty valleys and ravines offer an ideal habitat for the palma or carandilla palm tree, which grows forming small and dense woods of palm tree clusters known locally as palmares or isolated. Reeds and rushes grow by the rivers and in the wetlands, which are often flooded. Amongst the floating species the water lentils is the most important one. There are also large populations of cattails or totora reeds and saetas in the lagoons located between the Tercero and Cuarto Rivers. Likewise, there are salty grasses, barba de tigre, cachiyuyo and jume, mainly in the ravines.

 


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